Charles Williams was a British polymath combining considerable skills as a poet, novelist, theologian, and literary critic. He was also a valued member of the famed Inklings writing circle and a powerful influence on Narnia creator, C. S. Lewis. Williams’ most famous biographer is Alice Mary Hadfield who, during widely spaced periods in her life, wrote two perceptive critical biographies filled with useful insights concerning his life and work. One of her most revealing penetrations has a bearing on existentialism.

Sceptre, Orb, and Imperial Crown of Austria

You must regard your own emotionally important ideas with the respect due to proper authority. To be authentic, you must live by these defining and guiding ideas. (Photo: public domain)

In An Introduction to Charles Williams, she writes, “C. W.’s mind was deeply and naturally ‘existential’, though it had other saving and coordinating qualities as well. Existentialism in this context might be focused in the phrase ‘Not what it is but that it is.’”

In other words, Williams manifested little in the way of what Jungians would refer to as authenticity. Rather than drawing on an inner stable sense of self, he lived more in the moment, on the fly, so to speak, as a constantly changing false persona that had to deal with, adopt, or adapt to, the buffeting of ideas and values coming from “outside,” from others.

According to Hadfield, “This kind of life is produced by, and produces, a sense of crisis working on the mind and heart. Everything is on the point of change; an enormous and hardly graspable threat or ‘other’ quality rises in every detail on which the mind turns; our very existence all but slips from us at times in the pressure of crisis and becoming — becoming what, we dare not say, but either something wildly different from ourselves, or sheer loss.”

That is to say, Williams suffered, as do all people who live this way, from existential angst. Those who have vainly identified with their false personas or ideal self-images always feel this notorious form of anxiety. They face constantly the threat that undesired, but authentic, personality traits, values, and behaviour will emerge from the unconscious mind. Quite rightly, they feel anxious about the quality and stability of the publically presented personas they have cobbled together from ideas and values consciously selected from the world around them. They are constantly in danger of having their splendid arbitrarily chosen images of themselves overturned, either by the inner forces of the authentic self, or by having their precarious falsity exposed by circumstances.

Hadfield has an interesting view of the effect of being this way. She sees exposure to ideas as a kind of “pressure,” which has ramifications. In her words, “The pressure has results in the actions of each person. If the existence of God, or the passing of time, or truth, has no effect upon your living, but is one of your favourite ideas, it remains a hobby. It has no reality for you as, say, money has.” In other words, you have become divorced from reality. You are not living fully in the real world. The pressure of ideas does not adequately move you. Such a state of affairs is inevitable if your ideas are not your own.

The situation deteriorates over time. “If you continue not to let your ideas affect your living, your whole existence becomes in the end mere play.”

Things are very different if you take the pressure of ideas seriously. “If they are felt as authority or terror they issue in acts, however small and daily. The operation of that Being behind the crisis and the pressure is therefore known finally through its effect upon people and actions.”

Hadfield’s religious beliefs colour her thinking here. She sees some mystical concept of Being (or God) as the origin of “the crisis and the pressure” which you must experience as authority or terror. A secular interpretation (already outlined above) would withdraw the projection or externalization and substitute the authentic self as the source of the ideas that matter. Thus, the genuine will that originates from the self provides the ill-defined sense of crisis and pressure, which in turn yields the feeling of authority or terror.

However, it is vitally important to realize that you only experience your own authentic ideas as some kind of terror if you have wrongly identified with your false persona (ideal self-image or “favourite ideas” about yourself). The deep-seated fear arises from the destabilizing discrepancy between what you would like to believe and what you actually do believe, or from the embarrassing gap between who you would like to think you are and who you really are. As noted earlier, what you dread is the “sheer loss” of your false self. More specifically, you fear the humiliation of being exposed as a hypocrite or unmasked as a fake after saying or doing something — carelessly, without thinking, or in the heat of the moment — that reveals the troubling difference between how you present yourself and how you truly are.

Authentic people, or more specifically, people correctly identified with the authentic self, have accepted themselves as they truly are and learned to work with what traits and attitudes they actually possess. They simply recognize their ideas as aspects of their own values, morals, and innate way of looking at the world. They act upon their ideas quite naturally, without feeling unduly pressured or terrorized, because they recognize that the ideas are representative of who they truly are. The ideas come, not with terror, but with a sense of proper personal authority. Most of us recognize these rare people when we see them and say that such individuals have integrity.

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8 thoughts on “Experiencing Ideas as Authority or Terror

  1. I’ve read some of Charles Williams’ novels and found them very interesting. By the way, I noticed that on Goodreads you added my novel The Termite Queen to your to-read list. Thank you! I think you might enjoy it, especially the character of Griffen Gwidian, who definitely is a complex man with deep psychological problems that seem to me to be related to the essay above – with sentences like “The fear arises from the discrepancy between what you would like to believe and what you actually do believe, or the gap between who you would like to think you are and who you really are.” Griffen has lived a lie his whole life in order to escape an overwhelming but unjustified guilt.

  2. Lorinda, I’m happy to hear from someone who also enjoys Charles Williams’ novels. Rumour has it his reputation is on the rise, although I believe North American Christians comprise most of his readers. I should mention for the benefit of my own readers that some of his “metaphysical thrillers” are available as free downloads (including EPUB) from the Project Gutenberg Canada website.

    I do indeed plan to read The Termite Queen, In fact, I have already read your fantasy novella, The Blessing of Krozem, and enjoyed it very much. Being a shorter work, I thought it would make a good introduction to your writing. I gave it four stars on Goodreads and recommend that others take advantage of the free download available from Smashwords. The simple lyrical writing style you employ in the work goes well with the charming story.

  3. Oh, I missed your ranking of Krozem on Goodreads! I’ve given away maybe 112 copies of the little piece and had only one review. A lot of people download free books and then never read them. That’s a piece I wrote way back in the late ’70s. It’s an example of the kind of fantasy I was writing at the time. My later material is more SF. You might want to try Monster Is in the Eye of the Beholder. It’s also short, and it’s been very nicely reviewed. Thanks for your interest! Paperbacks of the non-free material are also available if you prefer.

  4. Wonderful post, Thomas!
    I have not read much of Charles Williams though I am a fan of the inklings.
    Many of the steps in your ideas remind me of the work of Jordan Peterson. His context is clinical psychology, though he draws from the existentialist tradition, as well as literature, mythology and religion. His book, Maps of Meaning, is a rather thick text but some of his online lectures are accessible.

    I don’t think he draws specifically from Hadfield, but he would probably have a lot to say about your quote : “If they are felt as authority or terror they issue in acts, however small and daily. The operation of that Being behind the crisis and the pressure is therefore known finally through its effect upon people and actions.”

    He believes our ancients understood their gods in this way – what compels your behaviour, what has implication for action – even if this is almost incomprehensible to “modern, objective” ears. Instead of terror and authority, he generalizes to promise and threat (which turn to hope and anxiety). And as I think you suggest, we need not look beyond or behind the external world, but instead demand a “vow of obedience” from the ego.

    Looking forward to reading some of your other posts. Cheers!

  5. Thanks for the interesting comment, Andrew. I find it intriguing that both ancients and modern Christians can perceive their gods in such similar ways. This attests to the constancy of the inner human condition despite radically-changed external social conditions, lifestyles, and general world views. Carl Jung recognized the primacy of the unconscious (see his Answer to Job) yet decided that, for many, it was best to externalize the god-concept and thereby heed the enhanced authority of one’s own authentic self unimpeded by ego-imposed moral quibbling, hesitation, and doubt.

  6. “Ego-imposed moral quibbling, hesitation, and doubt.”
    – Sounds like my own personal experience with blogging and with the characters in the blogosphere years ago. 🙂

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