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Ophelia by John William Waterhouse

Literature is philosophy in that it expresses the general attitude towards life prevalent in a particular period and place. (Image: public domain)

German literary scholar, Rudolf Unger, argued that literature does not merely translate philosophical knowledge into imagery and verse. He claimed that literature expresses the general attitude towards life prevalent in a particular period and place. Therefore, poets (and by extension, writers) tackle important questions which are also within the sphere of philosophy. However, where philosophy is organized and structured, the poetic or prosaic approach is unsystematic. Where philosophy is scholarly and academic, literature is vivid and dramatic.

Literature typically deals with a narrowed set of philosophical problems that engage even the most ordinary person.

The Problem of Fate

The critical issue with fate is the relation between freedom and necessity. The key question is how much control we have over our own lives. Are we completely free to do as we please? Conversely, do the harsh dictates of necessity determine what we can and must do? Is there middle ground? Do we at least have free will with the ability to choose among a limited number of viable alternatives?

A related issue is the question of where causality originates. Does it arise from spirit, the vital principle, or animating force, within living things? If you believe in human freedom or free will, then you are in this camp. If causality originates with nature, then the natural world is the causal agent creating and controlling things in the universe. If you believe in necessity, then this is your camp.

The Problem of Nature

The problem of nature concerns our attitude towards the natural world. Humanity’s attitude towards (or feeling for) nature has, in recent decades, become problematic indeed. The longstanding Christian / Western paradigm of successfully exploiting nature as a resource has given way to resurgence of primitive nature worship (now called environmentalism) where the emphasis is on preserving the natural world. Yet the old issues remain. Romantics idealize nature’s beauties and charms, and long to live in the country while realists see nature as mucky, inconvenient, insect-infested, and dangerous and opt to stay in town!

Myth and magic are part of the nature problem because they arise from humanity’s attempts to live with and control the natural world. Are myths accounts of actual events or just stories made to entertain? Do they have some basis in human psychology? Magic was originally “sympathetic”; that is, some commonality between nature and human beings inspired the spells and potions. Mandrake roots look like a person so they must be medicinal. Is magic real or just an illusion?

The Problem of Humanity

Because “humanity” is itself a vague term, this whole area can be nebulous. We are dealing with questions pertaining to the fundamental nature of humankind. What does it mean to be human? What is the meaning of life? Does life even have (or need) a meaning? Then there is humanity’s relation to death. Do we take Albert Camus’ position that the reality of individual mortality renders human life absurd? Or do we hold the Darwinian view that the mortality of the individual is essential if evolution is to occur and species advance to higher levels of sophistication?

Finally, there is the human concept of love. Is love just a form of madness as the Chinese have long held? Or, as the romantics and some religious types would have it, is love the be all and end all of human existence?

Problems of Family, Society, and State

These problems are the favourites of profound social and political thinkers. How do we think of the family? Is it the bedrock of human society or is it an outmoded institution best replaced by government oversight and relegated to the past? Is society a benign force for shaping good citizens or does it bend people out of shape? Is the state the protector of our rights, freedoms, and security or does it inevitably abuse and oppress the people?

Everyone on the planet wrestles with these problems at some level. Literature offers insights – and even advice – in a form accessible to all.